## science

## MATHEMATICAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES

UNDERLYING SANTILLI'S INTERMEDIATE NUCLEAR

SYNTHESES, WITHOUT RADIATIONS

Full scientific presentation available in the monograph

**I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili,**

* New Sciences for a New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli,* Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf

**A view of Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli at age 72 taken in April 2007 by the Club Med in Martinique**

Quotation from pages 12-13 the preface of

**Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics,**

by Karl Popper, W.W. Bartley (1982)

**PREFACE**

By using a language accessible to the general scientific audience, this website is dedicated to an outline of the discoveries by the Italian-American scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli ("Santilli" hereon) in mathematics, physics and chemistry with particular reference to their primary intended scope in Santilli's words* The conception, quantitative treatment, test and industrial realization of new, clean energies and fuels so much needed by mankind that are inconceivable with the mathematics, physics and chemistry of the 20th century.*

During the outline, we shall also make available all original technical literature in free pdf downloads (since it is at times of difficult location, having been published in refereed Journals the world over). Readers with a vast knowledge of pre-existing mathematics, physics and chemistry, but no knowledge of Santilli's new disciplines, are suggested to provide primary attention to the overall view of the scientific edifice and are discouraged to pass vacuous judgments on individual papers since, as it is the case for individual pieces of a puzzle, they cannot possibly indicate the entire vista.

**General Bibliography on Santilli Discoveries**

A general review of Santilli's studies up to 2011 is available in the monograph

I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili, *New Sciences for a New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli, *Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),

**http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf**

with upgrades available in the archives of the R. M. Santilli Foundation

**http://www.santilli-foundation.org/news.html**

Following written authorization from the copyright owners, this website is an adaptation and expansion of the above sources specialized for nuclear syntheses without radiations.

**Copyright notice**

The Board of Directors of Thunder Fusion Corporation hereby authorized the free use and download of all pictures, references and text of this website under the strict condition of quoting the origination IN chronological orders with other quotations.

### TABLE OF CONTENT

**CHAPTER 1. INSUFFICIENCIES OF THE 20-TH CENTURY THEORIES**

**1.1. THE LEGACY OF LAGRANGE AND HAMILTON.**

**1.2. INSUFFICIENCIES OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY**

**1.3. INSUFFICIENCIES OF GENERAL RELATIVITY**

**1.4. INSUFFICIENCIES OF EINSTEIN'S THEORIES FOR ANTIMATTER**

**1.5. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS**

**1.6. INSUFFICIENCIES OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS**

**1.7. INSUFFICIENCIES OF PARTICLE PHYSICS**

**1.8. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUARKS AND NEUTRINOS CONJECTURES**

**1.9. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY**

**1.10. INSUFFICIENCIES OF BIOLOGY**

**1.11. INSUFFICIENCIES OF ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY**

**1.12. INTRODUCTORY READINGS**

**CHAPTER 2. HADRONIC MATHEMATICS**

**2.1. FOREWORD**

**2.2. DISCOVERY OF NEW NUMBERS**

**2.2A. Discovery of isonumbers (1983)**

**2.2B. Discovery of genonumbers (1993)**

**2.2C. Discovery of hypernumbers (1994)**

**2.2D. Discovery of isodual numbers (1993)**

**2.3. DISCOVERY OF ISO-, GENO-, HYPER-DIFFERENTIAL CALCULI, FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND THEIR ISODUALS (1996)**

**2.4. DISCOVERY OF ISO-, GENO-, HYPER-, SPACES AND THEIR ISODUALS (1983).**

**2.5. DISCOVERY OF ISO-, GENO-, HYPER-SYMPLECTIC GEOMETRIES AND THEIR ISODUALS (1996)**

**2.6. UNIFICATION OF MINKOWSKIAN AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRIES (1998)**

**2.7. ISOTOPIC COVERING OF LIE'S THEORY AND ITS ISODUAL (1978)**

**2.8. LIE-ADMISSIBLE COVERING OF THE LIE-ISOTOPIC THEORY AND ITS ISODUAL (1967)**

**2.9. INTEGRABILITY CONDITIONS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF A LAGRANGIAN**

**2.9A. Integrability conditions in Newtonian mechanics (1978).**

**2.9B. Integrability conditions in field theory (1975)**

**3.1. FOREWORD**

**3.2. ETHER AS A UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM (1952-1955)**

**3.3. ORIGIN OF THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (1955-1957) **

**3.4. ORIGIN OF THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD (1974)**

** 3.5. SYMMETRY OF THE ETHER (1970)**

**3.6. QFT (AND QCD) LIMITS FROM DISCRETE SYMMETRY VIOLATIONS (1974)**

**3.7. RESOLUTION OF THE HISTORICAL IMBALANCE ON ANTIMATTER (1994)**

**3.7A. Foreword**

**3.7B. Newton-Santilli isodual equation for antimatter**

**3.7C. Isodual representation of the Coulomb force**

**3.7D. Hamilton-Santilli isodual mechanics**

**3.7E. Isodual special and general relativities**

**3.7F. Prediction of antigravity**

**3.7G. Test of antigravity**

**3.7H. Isodual quantum mechanics**

**3.7I. Experimental detection of antimatter galaxies**

**3.7J. The new isoselfdual invariance of Dirac's equation**

**3.7K. Dunning-Davies thermodynamics for antimatter**

**3.7L. Isoselfdual spacetime machine**

**3.7M. Original literature**

**3.8. INITIATION OF q-DEFORMATIONS OF LIE THEORY**

**3.9. THEOREMS OF CATASTROPHIC INCONSISTENCIES OF NONCANONICAL AND NONUNITARY THEORIES**

**3.9A. The majestic consistency of Hamiltonian theories.**

**3.9B. Theorems of catastrophic inconsistencies of noncanonical and nonunitary theories.**

**3.9C. Examples of catastrophically inconsistent theories.**

**3.10. SANTILLI RELATIVITIES (1978)**

**3.10A. Historical notes**

**3.10B. Santilli's opening statement**

**3.10C. Conceptual foundations**

**3.10D. Mathematical foundations**

**3.10E. Invariance and universality of Santilli's isotopies.**

**3.10F. Lorentz-Poincare'-Santilli isosymmetry and its isodual**

**3.10G. Santilli's isorelativity and its isodual**

**3.10H. Santilli's isogravitation and its isodual**

**3.10I. Santilli's geno- and hyper-relativities and their isoduals**

**3.10J. Isotopic reconstruction of exact spacetime symmetries when conventionally broken**

**3.10K. Experimental verifications**

**3.10L. Original literature**

**3.11. HADRONIC MECHANICS (1967)**

**3.11A. Foreword**

**3.11B. Historical notes**

**3.11C. Interior and exterior dynamical systems**

**3.11D. Closed and open dynamical systems**

**3.11E. Newton-Santilli isoequations**

**3.11F. Hamilton-Santilli isomechanics**

**3.11G. Animalu-Santilli isoquantization**

**3.11H. Hilbert-Santilli isospaces**

**3.11I. Schroedinger-Santilli isoequations**

**3.11J. Heisenberg-Santilli isoequations**

**3.11K. Elimination of quantum divergencies**

**3.11L. Genotopic and hyperstructural branches of hadronic mechanics**

**3.11M. Isodual branches of hadronic mechanics**

**3.11N. Two-body hadronic system**

**3.11O. Simple construction of hadronic mechanics**

**3.11P. Invariance of hadronic mechanics**

**3.11Q. Relativistic hadronic mechanics**

**3.11R. Direct universality and uniqueness of hadronic mechanics**

**3.11S. EPR completion of quantum mechanics, hidden variables and all that**

**3.11T. Operator isogravity**

**3.11U. Iso-grand-unification**

** 4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.1A. Lack of exact character of quantum mechanics for the hydrogen molecule (1978) 4.1B. Insufficiencies of the quantum chemical notion of valence (1978) 4.1C. Insufficiencies of screened Coulomb potentials (1978)) 4.1D. Classification of hadronic chemistry (2000) 4.1E. Basic literature **

** 4.2. HADRONIC CHEMISTRY 4.2A. Animalu-Santilli Cooper pair (1995) 4.2B. Santilli-Shillady strong valence bond (1999) 4.2C.The isoelectronium (1999) 4.2D. The hydrogen molecule (1999) 4.2E. The water molecule (2000) **

** 4.3. THE NEW CHEMICAL SPECIES OF SANTILLI MAGNECULES 4.3A. Historical notes 4.3B. Conception of Santilli magnecules (1998) 4.3C. Detection of Santilli magnecules (1998) 4.3D. Magnecular structure of H_{3} and O_{3} (1998) 4.3E. Magnecular structure of liquids and solids (1998) **

** 4.4 INDUSTRIAL REALIZATION OF FUELS WITH MAGNECULAR STRUCTURE 4.4A. Catastrophic forecasts facing mankind 4.4B. Santilli hadronic reactors (1998) 4.4C. Industrial realization of MagneGas fuel (1998) 4.4D. Industrial realization of the HHO fuel (2006) 4.4E. Industrial realization of MagneHydrogen fuel (2003) 4.4F. Molecular and magnecular combustions (1998). **

** 4.5. SANTILLI DISCOVERY IN BIOLOGY 4.5A. Historical notes 4.5B. Deformability, irreversibility, and multi-valuedness of biological structures. 4.5C. Representation of biological structures via Santilli's deformable, irreversible and multi-valued hypermathematics 4.5D. Hypermolecules, hypermagnecules and hyperliquids 4.5E. Deciphering the DNA code? 4.5F. Understanding the DNA structure? 4.5G. A future new cure for cancer? 4.5H. Cloonan's advances in Santilli Magnecules **

** **

** 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1A. The unreassuring conditions of 20th century particle physics 5.1B. Mutation of particles in interior conditions 5.1C. Mutation of spacetime caused by physical media **

** 5.2. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS 5.2A. Experimental verification of the mutation of magnetic moments. 5.2B. Experimental verification with the meanlives of unstable hadrons 5.2C. Experimental verifications with arbitrary local causal speeds 5.2D. Experimental verification via the Bose-Einstein correlation 5.2E. Characterization of hadronic media **

** 5.3. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS. 5.3A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century nuclear physics. 5.3B. Experimentyal verification with nuclear magnetic moments. 5.3C. Experimental verifications with the nuclear force **

** 5.4. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN CHEMISTRY AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 5.4A. Experimental verifications in chemistry 5.4B. The unreassuring condition of 20th century superconductivity 5.4C. Animalu's isosuperconductivity 5.4D. Experimental verification of Animalu's isosuperconductivity 5.4E. Initial basic laws of hadronic mechanics **

** 5.5. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION WITH THE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT**

5.5A. The inevitability of the ether as a universal medium

5.5B. Experimental verification with light propagating in water.

5.5C. Santilli isoredshift

5.5D. Experimental confirmation of Santilli isoredshift

5.5E. Experimental verification with the colors our atmosphere

** 5.6. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN ASTROPHYSICS 5.6A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century astrophysics and cosmology. 5.6B. Absence of universe expansion 5.6C. Absence of "dark matter" 5.6D. Absence of "dark energy" 5.6E. Experimental verification with quasar redshifts **

** 5.7. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION WITH ANTIMATTER AND COSMOLOGY 5.7A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century antimatter 5.7B. Experimental verification of Santilli's isodual theory of antimatter 5,7C. Santilli's iso-, geno-, and hyper-cosmologies. 5. Appendix 5.7A: Newton-Santilli universal gravitation **

**CHAPTER 6: REDUCTION OF MATTER TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS **

** 6.1. INTRODUCTION 6.1A. Foreword 6.1B. Santilli's recollections on the birth of hadronic mechanics 6.1C. New structure model of unstable hadrons and leptons 6.1D. Inapplicability of quantum mechanics to the structure of hadrons 6.1E. The dichotomy: classification vs structure of hadrons and leptons. **

** 6.2. REDUCTION OF MESONS AND LEPTONS TO ELECTRONS AND POSITRONS 6.2A. Conception of the π^{o} structure 6.2B. Structure equation of the π^{o} 6.2C. Solution of the π^{o} structure equation. 6.2D. Structure model of unstable leptons and of the remaining mesons. 6.2E. Revisions due to the isodual theory of antimatter 6.2F. Compatibility of the new structure model of hadrons with unitary classifications 6.2G. Experimental verifications **

** 6.3. REDUCTION OF BARYONS TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS 6.3A. Conception of the neutron structure 6.3B. Nonrelativistic exact representation of the neutron rest energy, mean life and charge radius 6.3C. Nonrelativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron spin. 6.3D. Nonrelativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron magnetic moment 6.3E. Foudations of the relativistic treatment 6.3F. Relativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron rest energy, meanlife and charge radius 6.3G. Relativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron spin. 6.3H. Relativistic, exact representation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron. 6.3I. Santilli's etherino vs Fermi's neutrino. 6.3J. Structure model of the remaining baryons with physical constituents 6.3K. Compatibility of baryon syntheses with the SU(3) classification. **

** 6.4. LABORATORY SYNTHESIS OF NEUTRONS FROM A HYDROGEN GAS 6.4A. Introduction 6.4B. Don Borghi experiment on the synthesis of neutrons from an hydrogen gas 6.4C. Santilli experiment on the synthesis of neutrons from a hydrogen gas 6.4D. The Don Borghi-Santilli neutroids 6.4E. Interpretation of Don Borghi and Santilli experiments 6.4F. Santilli's prediction of a new class of nucleides. 6.4G. Requirements for the re-run of Santilli's experiments **

** 6.5. REDUCTION OF NUCLEI TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. 6.5A. Introduction. 6.5B. Santilli's contributions in nuclear physics.< 6.5C. Review of basic nuclear contributions. 6.5D. Review of Lie-isotopic nuclear contributions. 6.5E. Review of Lie-admissible nuclear contributions. 6.5F. Reduction of the deuterium to two protons and one electron. 6.5Fa. Foreword. 6.5Fb. Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the deuterium structure. 6/5Fc. Conception of the deuteron structure. 6.5Fd. Representation of the stability of the deuterium. 6.5Fe. representation of the deuterium size. 6.5Ff. Representation of the deuterium charge. 6.5Fg. Representation of the deuterium Spin. 6.5Fh. Representation of the deuterium magnetic moment. 6.5Fi. Representation of the deuterium force. 6.5j. Representation of the deuterium total energy. 6.5Fk. Representation of the deuterium, electric dipole moment and parity. **

** 6.6. REDUCTION OF MATTER TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. **

** 6.7. REDUCTION OF NEUTRON STARS TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS. **

** CHAPTER 7: **

NUCLEAR ENERGIES WITHOUT RADIATIONS

** 7.1. INTRODUCTION **

** 7.2. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF ATOMIC TYPE 7.2A. Limitations of 20th century doctrines for energy releasing processes 7.2B. Conventional molecular combustion 7.2C. Santilli's magnecular combustion **

** 7.3. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF NUCLEAR TYPE 7.3A. Foreword 7.3B. Insufficiencies of "cold" and "hot" fusions 7.3C. Santilli's main idea for new controlled fusions 7.3D. Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and special relativity for controlled fusions 7.3E. Insufficiencies of quark and neutrino conjectures for controlled nuclear fusions 7.3F. Basic assumptions of intermediate controlled nuclear fusions 7.3G. Physical laws of controlled nuclear fusions 7.3H. The role of Santilli magnecules for controlled nuclear fusions 7.3I. Engineering conception and realization of hadronic refineries 7.3J. The physics of intermediate controlled nuclear fusions 7.3K. Engineering conception of hadronic reactors 7.3L. Experimental verification of nitrogen synthesis without harmful radiations or waste 7.3M. Independent verification of Santilli's nitrogen synthesis without harmful radiation or waste **

** 7.4. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF PARTICLE TYPE. 7.4A. Introduction 7.4B. The stimulated decay of the neutron < 7.4C. Neutron stimulated decay via photons with resonating frequency 7.4D. Hadronic energy of particle type 7.4E. Hadronic Energies via double beta decays 7.4F. Tsagas experiment on the Stimulated Neutron Decay 7.4G. Recycling of radioactive nuclear waste via their stimulated decay **

** 7.5. EPILOGUE**